Dehumidification of buildings and the lack of vertical and horizontal insulation in buildings with basements have always been the most important technological problems during renovation work. These problems have become even more ailing after last year's floods. The method of buildings' dehumidification, worked out by PhD Wojciech Nawrot from the Military Academy of Technology in Warszawa is very useful in solving the problem. The invention, winner of numerous awards at the world's most important exhibitions of inventions, precisely concerns the dehumidification of buildings, which got dump when ground waters went up. Wojciech Nawrot's solution boils down to the creation of vertical and horizontal insulation by injecting, into the building material (brickwork), water-insoluble crystallised minerals.
This technology has a number of strong points - it is the cheapest technology of building dehumidification in Poland, is ecology-oriented, the insulation can be made of mineral preparations made in Poland and from Polish substances. And the dumpier the brickwork is, the more efficient the method proves to be. That is why injection openings in the brickwork are additionally humidified before injection. The blockade made this way is long lasting one as is based on the unique in the nature phenomena of self-organisation of crystals. The technology can be used to make vertical and horizontal insulation from the inside of the buildings without disclosing external brickwork. It can be used to the dehumidification of any type of brickwork, irrespective of their width, and degree of humidity and salinity.
Following is the way of preparing horizontal insulation:
1. Injection openings are drilled horizontally at the same level of the brickwork in parallel to the level of the floor in the basement, irrespective of whether the building has the basement or not. 20-millimetre-diameter openings are made by percussive-rotary hammers in the distance ranging between 10-15 centimetres, depending on the degree of salinity.
2. Injection openings prepared this way are damped with water containing the injection agent with 0.5 litre-water-stream under pressure, which, apart from additionally wetting the opening, removes any obstacles from the way of the injection agent.
3. About 30 minutes after the wetting of the openings, injection agent consisting of respective proportions of Portland cement, silicate activator and water, is introduced gravitationally. During the injection, the mixture should easily pour out by a 2 centimetre-diameter opening. In this technology, the injection agent is at the same time the agent blanking the openings. After the injection, the openings can be additionally blanked with the same, but denser, injection agent.
4. The injection mixture should be prepared directly before its use and used within 30 minutes after adding water to the mixture components.
Vertical insulation is made in the same way. Injection openings are made in the way they were made in the case of horizontal insulation. The difference consists in the spacing of openings inside the building. In the external wall, openings are made horizontally and vertically each 20 centimetres. In cases of exceptionally high degree of salinity, the openings should be made each 15 centimetres. The author of the patent PhD Wojciech Nawrot prepares the activator for the injection mixture. The composition of the activator depends on the type of material of which the brickwork is made and the degree of salinity.
Since July 1987 over 7 thousand buildings have been dehumidificated in Poland and abroad. 134 home and 16 western-European firms have used the license of crystalline injection. The method helped to restore the National Theatre in Warszawa, F.Chopin house in Zelazowa Wola, the Field Cathedral of the Polish Army, Last Supper Chapel at Jasna Göra Holly Mary Shrine and the headquarters of the Polish Navy in Gdynia.
The technology won six gold medals at innovations exhibitions in Brussels, Geneva, Pittsburgh, Beijing, Casablanca, and Nuremberg. This fact was noticed by the World Organisation of Inventors and, Following its motion, the author of the technology was awarded with the Commander's Cross. The ceremony took place in Brussels on November 11,1997, which marks Poland's national day. Polish honourable accompanies numerous foreign awards mentions: that of minister of culture and arts, chairman of the Committee for Scientific Research and that granted by the president of Warszawa - the medal of marking the four hundredth anniversary of Warszawa.